Description of Medical Courses
This course is focused on teaching the morphological and functional anatomy of the human body. The goal is to assist the student in developing a three-dimensional, visual image of the way the human body is built. Each student, as a member of a team, carries out a complete dissection of the cadaver. The course consists of lectures devoted mostly to basic anatomy, and of laboratory work devoted to cadaver dissection and the study of cross-sections, pro-sections, skeletal material, models, and x-rays. The anatomical background and vocabulary are presented and used to establish the clinical correlations to other basic medical sciences.
This course takes on an interdisciplinary approach to the understanding of the organization and the functioning of the central nervous system. It includes a general overview of the basic elements, gross structure, and the appropriate terminology. Students first learn simultaneously parts of neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuropathology with the clinical neurological pathologies stressed later. Lectures are supplemented by laboratory sessions consisting of human brain dissections and the study of neurophysiology.
This course introduces the basic principles of biochemistry: the mechanisms of biochemical reactions, biosynthesis, utilization, and the degradation of major constituents of the human body in order to explain the biochemical and pathological bases for various diseases.
Exploration of the metabolic characteristics of each organ is correlated to the understanding of the metabolic interplay between organs. Students learn the chemistry and metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. This course places emphasis on both chemistry and molecular biology providing a biochemical framework for clinical studies.
Human Physiology with Elements of Biophysics
This course acquaints students with the dynamic functional interrelationships that exist between cells, tissues, and organ systems, so that students develop an understanding of the human organism as a whole. The course begins with elements of biophysics and provides a review of the key points previously covered by students in the areas of anatomy, cell biology, and histology. Later, lectures and laboratory exercises are provided on the physiology of the following major body systems: gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, endocrine, and reproductive.
Microbiology and Parasitology
This course introduces the basic principles of microbiology including: classification and taxonomy, microbial physiology, the host-parasite relationship, and the epidemiological concepts. Also covered are the epidemiology, symptomology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, and therapy of the major bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens. The laboratory portion of the course includes laboratory methods in bacteriology, mycology, and parasitology.
This biology course consists of two parts: 2
- Five lectures on host-parasite relationships — routes of parasite transmission; their morphological, immunological, and biochemical adaptations to the host environment; and the emergence of new pathogens in the human body.
- Nine seminars focusing on the following basic problems of human genetics:
- procaryota and eucaryota — genomes, gene structure, and function
- the basics of cell differentiation and genetic control of morphogenesis
- genetic control of sex determination in humans and in animals
- eco- and pharmacogenetics
- elements of biotechnology
- transgenic organisms — are they safe for humans and environmentally friendly?
- the impact on public health of the abiotic and biotic components in food
- parasite genetics
This medical chemistry course covers bio-inorganic, bio-organic, and physical chemistry in the basic range of problems concerning the structure, properties, and transformations of biomolecules. Knowledge of these issues is necessary for students to learn and understand the metabolism (biochemistry), the mechanisms of quantitative and qualitative changes (clinical chemistry and pathobiochemistry), and their control (prevention and treatment).
The course consists of lectures, seminars, and laboratory classes, and it introduces students in the first year of the 6-year M.D. program to a variety of physical and chemical properties of organic substances, reactions of the functional groups found in biological molecules, basic chemistry of biological macromolecules, the role of buffer systems, electrolytes and metal ions in biological systems, and to some aspects of enzyme kinetics. Students are introduced to the properties and chemical concepts of important classes of compounds to help them understand the behavior and function of biomolecules in the body.
This course presents the origin, the development, and the present condition of philosophical thinking. It introduces the students to the nature of philosophical problems through discussions, and to the role of Plato as the originator of the new mode of thinking and as the founder of the so-called Great Problems. It outlines the development of philosophy by presenting the greatest thinkers’ ideas as the struggle to reformulate, refine, and solve the Great Problems. Finally, it shows how the 20th-century philosophers suspended the inquiry into the Great Problems shifting their attention to the new ideas about the mind, language, and society.
Introduction to Medicine
The main course objective is to teach students how to study medicine most efficiently. This course, based on former students’ knowledge and experiences, helps the current students start their medical training. It consists of lectures presenting the methods of studying different subjects, e.g., biophysics, anatomy, histology, physiology, and the clinical sciences. It also demonstrates the role of basic sciences in the clinical practice.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science which combines various disciplines such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, biology, and medical sciences. It deals primarily with physical phenomena occurring in live organisms of all types — from molecules, cells, and tissues through single organs, organ systems, and organisms, and finally in the human population and the biosphere. Therefore, the main course objective in biophysics is to provide students with an understanding of the basic physical processes that underlie the phenomenon of life. This course also includes the basic issues of the modern imaging techniques applied in medicine, and the physical processes that reveal the interaction between the environment and the human body.
Lecture topics include: biophysical aspects of the circulatory and respiratory systems, the visual system, the auditory system, the thermodynamics of biological systems, and the physical basis of transmembrane transport.
The biophysics seminar topics are varied and include long-wave electromagnetic radiation. Among them are:
- the effects of the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiation on materials and tissues;
- the thermodynamics of biological systems, and the physical basis of transmembrane transport;
- radiation therapy and radiation and ultrasound therapy
- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- ionizing radiation in tomography: x-ray computer tomography (CT), SPECT and PET, and electrocardiography
Topics covered in laboratory classes are complementary to the lectures and introductory to issues discussed during the seminars.
This course provides basic knowledge of the structure and function of cells, tissues, and organs at the microscopic level, enabling students to recognize and identify all major cell and tissue types in the human body. The normal structural characteristics are correlated to the physiological process as a background material for the study of microscopic pathology. Lectures are illustrated with relevant audiovisual materials and photomicrographs. During the laboratory sessions, each student has the use of a binocular microscope and a collection of over 80 stained tissue slide preparations. Computer analysis of cells and histochemical reactions are discussed in seminars and demonstrations.
This course introduces the basic and clinical aspects of normal and abnormal human development. Included in it as a major part of the course is the organogenesis that is the origin and formation of all organ systems in the human body. The various congenital anomalies are explained as deviations from normal development.
Teaching is conducted in lectures. Embryology is also taught in the courses on anatomy and histology.
The objective of this course is to provide an overview of the current and the probable future expansion of the society’s role in the regulation of the practice of medicine. The stress is put on the basic aspects of malpractice, including the definition of negligence and the assessment of damages.
Another group of topics presented during this course is related to drug abuse, including alcohol. Also discussed will be: behavioral toxicology and behavioral disturbances; inhalant drugs and their impact on schoolchildren; nutritional and legal aspects of drug use, cigarette smoking, and the effects of drugs on growth and development.
The strategies for dealing with the alcohol or substance abuse problems will also be presented, with the emphasis placed on stimulating the awareness of, interest in, and inquiry into the historical trends, issues, controversies, and realities of providing effective programs for addressing them.
Lastly, the problem of spouse and child abuse will be covered. It will be discussed together with its sociologic and psychological causes, and with the existing diagnostic and prevention techniques.
The course in public health is intended to develop the essential knowledge of the health of the population, as influenced by internal and external factors to the community, including its relations with and the functioning of the healthcare systems. This course also focuses on developing the kind of attitudes and skills which are desired in a future doctor who is active in the social, political, and economic arenas.
Upon completing the course, students should gain a basic understanding of public health as (a) a science and a medical discipline, (b) as a field for practical activities — both from the theoretical and the practical viewpoint, (c) and with respect to its historical as well as contemporary aspects. It also emphasizes the way in which public health contributes to the health status of a population.
This course offers an understanding of the contribution of genetic diseases to human morbidity and mortality. The basic aspects of DNA chemistry, structure, function and regulation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes are taught using clinical examples. The clinical applications of genetic principles and laboratory techniques, including chromosomal characterization, are emphasized. Case presentations are used to illustrate the basic principles of genetic diseases.
General pathology emphasizes those changes or reactions which may occur in various diseases and in different organs. The lecture series covers: cell injury and death, inflammation, blood coagulation, thrombo-embolism and infarction, vascular diseases, tumors, immune deficiency diseases, infectious diseases, environmental pathology, and the diseases of infancy, childhood, and the old age. The laboratory work involves study of the material arranged in a series of modules. These modules contain not only color transparencies of gross and microscopic changes but also a number of electron photomicrographs. The systemic pathology part of the course will deal with specific diseases affecting the various organs of the body. The laboratory sessions for this module consist of the examination of a series of slides arranged to correspond with the lecture material which shows the microscopic changes at the various stages of disease.
Morphological Basis for Clinical Diagnosis
This course offers students a unique opportunity to focus on carefully selected clinical cases. It is intended as a feedback and revision aid so that students can assess the extent of the limitations to their understanding of pathology.
First Aid and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Students learn how to manage the practical knowledge of resuscitation. Most common emergencies that will be studied are: post-traumatic bleeding, bone fractures, cardiac arrest, hypo- and hyperthermia, pneumothorax etc. Emphasis is put on the prompt diagnosis of acute cardiac and respiratory failures.
Law and Ethics
This course includes a series of lectures and discussions designed to show how doctors’ lives and work are affected by civil and criminal law, and how to help them meet the challenges posed by the various ethical problems. Starting with those before birth and up to those after death, faced by physicians throughout their medical practice.
This course is designed to develop basic communication skills in Polish. The scope of this course will cover common, everyday situations including: patient interviews, gathering of medical data, and the basic conversation skills required to conduct medical examinations in Polish clinics.
The Latin in medicine course is designed for foreign students taking Medical Latin in order to provide them with a general knowledge of Latin.
This course directly assists students with improving their ability to read and write medical prescriptions and diagnoses.
It consists of 30 lessons which cover the basics of grammar illustrated with examples. Each lesson is comprised of two parts — a grammar section explaining grammar rules, and an exercise section with sentences and proverbs illustrating vocabulary usage. The goal of these lectures is to teach essential, specialized vocabulary and grammar so that students learn to understand the medical terminology. Another goal is to teach the structure of and the creation of medical and chemical terminology, drug names, and prescriptions; also offering students a basic knowledge of grammatical structures that they can develop during their further studies.
Grammar topics are reduced to a minimum that is sufficient for comprehending the specialized Latin terminology, i.e.:
- a brief introduction to pronunciation and spelling
- all five declinations together with exceptions for certain terms
- declension and comparison of adjectives in a complete system
- a brief review of verbs with orientation to the practical use of imperative and conjunctive moods in prescribing medicines
- most frequently used prepositions
- prefixes and suffixes
The whole course is focused not on teaching vocabulary through memorization, but to let students understand the principles of word formation.
This course discusses the mechanisms of various diseases of the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, hematological, immunological, and endocrine systems on both the subcellular and cellular levels. This course provides insights into the disturbed physiological changes resulting from specific disease processes of individual organ systems. It also includes a study of immunological defense mechanisms, repair mechanisms, modes of injury, diseases of development and growth, blood disorders, and neoplasia. Selected problems of human genetics are reemphasized.
Lectures include relevant basic science material, examples of variations in structure and function, related symptoms and signs with common clinical scenarios and therapeutic approaches.
This course covers the knowledge of the sources, biochemical and physiological effects, mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics, as well as of the therapeutic and other beneficial uses of drugs.
Emphasis is placed on understanding the disposition, effects, efficacy, and relative toxicity of all major drug groups in the light of their biochemical and physiological mechanisms. The clinical aspects focus on a rational drug therapy. The use of drugs is analyzed with respect to pharmacologic principles, mechanisms of action, and pathophysiological abnormalities of the disease states.
Hygiene and Epidemiology
The central theme in this course is the importance of preventive medicine. In order to develop this concept, the course includes lectures and exercises in biostatistics, epidemiology, and public health. Laboratory sessions give students practical experience in solving public health problems. The impact of environmental factors on human health is also considered.
This course introduces basic statistical methodologies including descriptive statistics, normal distribution, hypothesis testing, and confidence intervals using the Z and t distributions, regression and correlation, chi-square, and other common nonparametric procedures. Statistical concepts are illustrated by appropriate biomedical applications.
This course introduces students to the major principles and mechanisms involved in the function of the immune system. The lectures begin with the presentation of information related to anatomical and histological features of the reticuloendothelial system, humeral immunity, and cellular immunity. The course emphasizes the transposition of basic science information into clinical problems. The laboratory sessions summarize the diagnostic applications of immunological techniques.
The course on cell biology focuses on the fundamental principles of cell function and structure, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized by covering the gene structure and regulation as well as the protein structure and synthesis. There is a discussion of the ways in which these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are further integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. The course examines fundamental principles of eukaryotic cell biology at the molecular level with particular emphasis placed on biochemical approaches and mechanisms. Topics include: structure and function of the plasma membrane; transport of small molecules, ions, and macromolecular complexes across membranes; protein trafficking; the cytoskeleton, signal transduction pathways, and the control of cell division and cellular proliferation; the molecular nature of genes; gene function; the inheritance of genes; and the genetic basis of traits. Examples of disruptions to these processes occurring in human diseases are discussed throughout the course.
The course consists of an extensive practical part in the laboratory where students learn about the application of experimental techniques in cell culture, immune-histochemistry, and flow cytometry, and where they perform molecular procedures. Students spend most of their class time in the teaching laboratory practicing fundamental techniques, such as: maintaining cell in-vitro conditions, staining of tissue and specific compartments of the cell, affinity chromatography, electrophoresis, image cytometry analysis, PCR and recombinant DNA technology etc. In addition to learning the ways to perform these techniques safely, we want students to understand why these techniques work the way they do, and which scientific questions can be addressed with different techniques.
This course if focused on the psychology and physiology of life cycles. The general objectives are to describe the normal stages of human development and to discuss the psychological and physical factors affecting people in different periods of life.
The goal of the first part of the course is to give students the basic information concerning mental status examination, communication, interviewing, and the factors that may influence the doctor-patient relationship. The next set of seminars covers those aspects of neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neurochemistry, and genetics that are related to psychiatry.
The course on semiotics is designed to teach the typical signs and symptoms of the most common disorders. Observation and proper interpretation of signs and symptoms determine to a large extent the success of a good diagnosis. During the course students meet patients with various diseases in the clinical wards and outpatient clinics, take their history, and evaluate the significance of performed observations. This course is designed to be an introduction to the basic internal medicine course offered in later years, and to facilitate the patient contact during students’ training sessions that involve patients.
This course introduces the principles of patient diagnosis in the clinical setting with the basic material presented in a series of lectures. Students are expected to develop both a logical approach to the diagnosis and treatment of patient complaints, as well as the technical skills which will enable them to take down a patient history and to perform a physical examination. Each student studies one or two patients per week and presents their cases on the teaching rounds. Then he/she follows these patients throughout their hospital stay, and finally writes a history of each patient’s disease, using the patient’s case as a basis for discussion. Student activities include rounds, consultations, laboratory sessions, specific diagnostic procedures, and treatment planning. Students also participate in outpatient clinics held by physicians. The training experience in this course emphasizes the clinical manifestations of various diseases in such areas as: cardiology, gastroenterology, hematology, nephrology, pulmonology, endocrinology, and nuclear medicine.
Pharmacology and Toxicology
The goal of this pharmacology and toxicology course is to provide students with knowledge of drugs that are useful in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human diseases.
The course material will be delivered through lectures and seminars. The seminar content will focus on the subjects covered in lectures. During the seminars, students must be prepared to discuss corresponding topics covered in the lectures.
The objective for this course is to provide students with general knowledge of emergency medicine and the Emergency Medical Systems (EMR), as well as of the basic standard procedures for pre-hospital rescue techniques used onsite of an emergency in the cases of accidents, natural disasters, and mass casualty events.
The course consists of 30 hours which take place at the Chair of Rescue Medicine, the Emergency Medicine Department, and at the Polish National Fire Fighters’ Unit.
Topics presented during the seminars and practical classes include:
- pre-hospital management of a trauma patient
- acute coronary syndrome
- poly-traumatized patient
- injuries to CNS (Central Nervous System)
- interpretation of lab results
- emergencies in children
- analgesiosedation in emergency medicine
During a one-day visit to a fire fighting unit, students will have the opportunity to learn about the medical rescue techniques used by Polish fire fighters specializing in the search-and-rescue operations.
This course consists of 20 hours of instruction and begins with a series of lectures that provide students with basic knowledge of such subjects as: definition of a disaster and disaster medicine, natural disasters, mass casualty events, and pre-hospital care organization for injured patients. During seminars students learn about hazardous materials and radiation accidents, environmental emergencies, terrorist attacks, toxicology, drug and medication overdoses, and infection control for the medical personnel.
The objective of this course is to provide students with knowledge of the basic psychological paradigms, stress theories, coping styles, adjusting behaviors, and psychomatic medicine. The Department of Clinical Psychology provides students with the understanding of the patient as a whole in the process of coping with their disorders.
Instruction includes a developmental approach to the efforts of both the patient and the family in order for the patient to readjust, recover and return to health.
Students develop their skills to deepen their understanding of the nature of the disease-related stress and the emotional reactions to it. They will learn the protocols for communicating with patients, families, and other professionals. Specifically, they will gain the knowledge of the emotional reactions to the disease, ways of dealing with denial, breaking the bad news, collusion, and of responding to the difficult questions raised by the patient and the family members. Students will be expected to learn about the stages of human life and about the life span theories that explain the life crises occurring in the course of a human life.
History of Medicine
This course’s goal is to provide essential information on the history of medicine, and to present the full-span history of people’s struggle with their bodily infirmities. However, the objective of this course is also to demonstrate the development in different fields of medicine and the changes in the concepts of health and disease. The classes will take into consideration the biographies and achievements of famous scientists to help us understand how we are and where we are today with respect to all of the associated serious problems and controversies. This course is comprised of lectures and seminars.
This course is focused on the diagnosis and treatment of human disease caused entirely or in part by a person’s work environment.
The causes of such diseases may have various aspects and nature including physical, chemical, biological, and neuro-psychological.
The following subjects are discussed during this course: occupational toxicology, physical hazards in the work environment, exposure of healthcare workers to hazards in the work environment, biological hazards, ergonomics, fatigue, localized fatigue, whole body fatigue, cumulative trauma disorders, and occupational risk factors associated with the development of lower back pain.
Students should develop a basic ability to recognize an occupational disease case.
The palliative medicine course is designed to provide medical students with a holistic, palliative approach to the care of patients with advanced cancer and other malignant, incurable conditions including the end-of-life.
Students will become acquainted with the general philosophy of palliative hospice care principles and organization; symptom epidemiology; pathophysiology and management; ethical dilemmas; communication; family support; and the psychological, social, and spiritual problems in palliative care.
This course teaches medical students how and when to order laboratory tests in relation to the patient’s symptomology and/or disease, how to interpret these tests, and how to recognize their limitations. Clinical chemistry, clinical hematology, hemostasis, diagnostic immunology, and nuclear medicine are presented in lectures and laboratory sessions.
The purpose of this clinical rotation is to help students understand the common disorders and diseases of childhood, especially their diagnosis, prevention, and management, including surgery when required. Emphasis is placed on the special needs of newborns. The rotation offers the opportunity to develop the necessary skills required in: taking a pediatric history, examining children of all ages, and in gaining experience in the assessment of the relevant clinical information. Based on which it is possible to formulate a plan of case management that is fully intelligible to the parents, and, if necessary to the child. Students learn history taking, physical examination procedures, as well as the principles of infant feeding, hydration, and drug therapy. Lectures provide students with the basic knowledge of normal physical and mental child development, as well as with the essential information pertaining to cardiac, gastrointestinal, neurological, hematological, immunological, and other types of childhood diseases.
Gynecology and Obstetrics
The goals of this rotation are to familiarize students with the knowledge of the clinical problems encountered in this area. Emphasis is placed on: obtaining experience in routine obstetric delivery, outpatient gynecologic case management of the different conditions; and on paying attention to the public health aspects as they relate to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, venereal diseases, cancer detection, and human sexuality.
The course objective is to provide a base of information concerning the pathology and physiology of newborn infants which is required of every physician.
Course components include: fetal physiology, adaptation to extrauterine life, care of a healthy newborn, breastfeeding, neonatal resuscitation, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, congenital abnormalities, perinatal asphyxia, birth trauma, perinatal infections, elements of intensive care and mechanical ventilation, surgery in the newborn stage, chronic complications of prematurity, neurodevelopmental problems, and follow-up.
This course introduces the care of psychiatric patients. Learning objectives are designed to increase students’ ability to recognize psychopathology, use effective interview techniques, make a correct diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, and understand the use of psychopharmacological agents. Students are taught ways to evaluate and manage psychiatric emergencies including substance abuse, ways to become more comfortable with psychiatric patients, and to fully understand the biological, psychological, and social determinants of their behavior. The history and results of the mental status examination are presented to the preceptor and later discussed. Students must attend ward rounds and outpatient office visits and counseling sessions.
The main goal of this rotation is to acquaint students with those diseases or injuries that require surgical treatment. Emphasis is placed not on surgical techniques but on learning the pathophysiology of diseases, establishing the diagnosis, and on participating in patient treatments. Students are integrated into the clinical team and are assigned to specific patients. Each student’s responsibilities include: taking histories, performing physical examinations, and participating in patient management including — whenever possible — operative procedures. Attendance at daily physician rounds is mandatory in order to recognize the most common post-operative complications. Subspecialties of surgery include: traumatology, urology, gastroenterology, thoracic, neurosurgery, vascular, and cardiac.
The aim of this course is to learn about the:
- etiopathogenesis of the most common rheumatic diseases
- basic diagnostic methods in rheumatology
- signs and symptoms of the most common diseases and their differential diagnostics
- essentials of the treatment of rheumatic diseases
The course material is presented in the format of case demonstrations during seminars.
The goal of this course is to provide students with knowledge of selected aspects of rheumatology. Course material is presented during lectures, seminars, case demonstrations, and clinical classes. The following topics are covered throughout the course:
- basic knowledge of pathophysiology, molecular biology, and genetics relevant to the most common autoimmune rheumatic conditions
- basic knowledge of the most common rheumatic diseases including: rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, polymyositis dermatomyositis, Sjogren’s syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis, vascullitis, and poly-myalgia rheumatica — along with their etiology, pathogenesis, pathology, clinical characteristics, natural history, and management
- clinical skills such as taking history and performing clinical examinations of patients with musculoskeletal disorders
- selection and interpretation of appropriate laboratory tests routinely used in rheumatology
- understanding the indications, actions, and monitoring of drugs used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases
The field of allergic diseases is a multidisciplinary specialty area and this course is provided by the Department of Dermatology and Allergic Diseases. The Diagnostic Center is going to focus on allergic skin disorders. However, we hope that this one-week course will cover both the basic and theoretical areas of allergic diseases.
The course objective is to provide basic knowledge of allergic diseases both from a theoretical perspective — etiopathogenesis, mechanisms, theories etc.; and from a practical standpoint — allergy diagnostic procedures, provocation tests, specific immunotherapy etc.
This course provides students with a fundamental knowledge of cardiology. The material is presented in seminars, clinical classes, and workshops. Students attend workshops in the ECHO, stress test, Holter monitoring, and thermodynamic laboratories.
The gastroenterology course takes place in the Department of Gastroenterology, Human Nutrition, and Internal Diseases.
Students work in the Gastroenterology ward with patients as well as in an outpatient clinic with patients referred by GPs to a gastroenterologist. In addition, students have the opportunity to participate in endoscopic procedures performed in the Endoscopy Unit — gastroscopy, colonoscopy, rectoscopy, ERCP etc.; and perform simple examinations such as rectal examinations.
During seminars students describe the most frequently observed gastrointestinal diseases.
In addition, students are assigned cases for presentations. Students work from patient case descriptions and perform the case analysis — including initial diagnosis, planning of additional examinations, differential diagnosis, and the final diagnosis. Students present their cases to the student group and the teaching staff, and answer questions as well as take part in the discussions following each presentation.
This course provides information about kidney diseases including: etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostics, and treatment. Students should have the knowledge of:
- general physical patient examination
- kidney anatomy and physiology
- glomerular morphology and histology
Major nephrology topics discussed during lectures, case presentations, and training sessions in the wards are:
- glomerulonephritis — etiology, diagnosis, clinical presentation, treatment, and morphological type
- systemic diseases — etiology, diagnosis, clinical presentation, and treatment
- urinary tract infections — etiology, diagnosis, clinical presentation, and treatment
- autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease — etiology, diagnosis, clinical presentation, and treatment
- dialysis therapy — hemodialysis, intermittent peritoneal dialysis, and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
- renovascular hypertension
The objective of this course as an integrated part of the Internal Medicine course is to provide students with basic information on the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory diseases. This rotation is designed to help students develop both a thorough understanding of and the clinical skills in gathering the patient information necessary to evaluate and manage common respiratory diseases.
This four-day course takes place at the Department of Internal Medicine and Diabetology. Students actively participate in seminars and small group work with the assistance of diabetology specialists.
Many topics are discussed in the seminars, e.g., the pathogenesis, classification, and treatment of diabetes, including oral agents and basic models of insulin therapy. Also covered are acute and chronic complications from the disease.
During the practical training sessions, students are presented with many cases of different diabetes types: type 1, type 2, type 3, and LADA. They encounter patients with both acute (mainly diabetic ketoacidosis) and chronic complications from diabetes (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy), and learn to suggest optimal treatment models.
Diabetology is an important subject area and the knowledge gained during this course will be useful to doctors in many different specialties.
During this course students learn to establish tentative diagnoses, ways to make a differential diagnosis with the use of well chosen accessory investigations, and ways to reach a final diagnosis. Students recognize the schema of the case report and other basic medical documents. The following major topics are discussed:
- hypertension — definition and classification
- epidemiology of hypertension
- etiology and pathogenesis
- secondary hypertension
- etiology, diagnosis, and treatment
- in-office blood pressure measurement
- ambulatory BP measurement
- diagnostic panel in hypertension
- hypertensive urgencies and emergencies
- treatment of hypertension – lifestyle changes and medication
- special populations — with coexistent diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, angina pectoris, or hypertension in pregnancy
- complications from hypertension
- practical guidelines for hypertension management – JNC 7 and ESH
- large clinical trials and why they are so important
The course is conducted at the Hematology Department that is comprised of the Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantion Wards (with 60 beds), and at the Clinical Hematology Laboratory — in the biobank, molecular, cytogenetic, and flow cytometry labs.The course objective is to provide a base of information on blood disorders. This rotation deals with issues relevanant to all students regardless of their ultimate career choices, such as the relation of the basic sciences to the understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders, deficiency anemia, and the blood coagulation diseases. Special attention is given to the technical skills required of the modern physician like: bone marrow aspiration biopsy and trephine biopsy; ethical and moral principles; and the avoidance of pitfalls in the management of patients with malignancies. In particular, students will be expected to improve their history taking and performance of a thorough physical examination. Students will learn to think clearly about diseases in order to make an accurate diagnosis, plan a course of treatment, learn technical skills, and use the current literature that includes the medical index and hematological journals.
During the entire course students will learn about the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of radionuclides. The course is designed to show students what they may expect from the tests performed in the Department of Nuclear Medicine, and what are the main benefits and limitations of these diagnostic procedures. Also presented will be the indications for and contraindications to radionuclide therapy.
After completing the theoretical introduction to the basic methods students will be asked to evaluate patients referred to the department for diagnosis and treatment. Then, they will take part in the decision-making process of selecting the most appropriate method. They will observe the tests being performed, evaluate the results either with a computer or by reviewing previously prepared results, and interpret them clinically, by combining the gathered information with the patient’s history.
Clinical Pharmacology is an integral part of pharmacology concerned with all clinical aspects of pharmacological treatment.
The main goals of clinical pharmacology — increased safety and efficacy of pharmacological treatment — are pursued through research and teaching.
The teaching of clinical pharmacology includes: pharmacokinetics; pharmacodynamics; adverse effects of drugs; monitoring of therapies; clinical trials with new agents; identification of the factors influencing drug action and their effects on the body — drug interactions, disease process, chronobiology, genotype, and environmental factors; and the social aspects of pharmacotherapy — pharmacoeconomics.
The curriculum focuses on clinical pharmacotherapy of cardiovascular disease, introduction to clinical pharmacogenetics, aspects of modern antibiotic use, and the basics of drug pharmacokinetics.
This course introduces the main principles of family medicine. Seminars focus on the following topics: different models of general practice in Ireland, Scotland, and Poland; doctor-patient communication; the clinical approach in general practice; health education and promotion; home care; the cooperation between GPs and other elements of the national health systems; and the structure of general practice. Students participate in the daily activities of family doctors in their practice, at the ratio of one student per tutor.
Also presented are the various types of equipment, including computer programs, used in general practice.
Internal Medicine in Primary Care
The course curriculum highlights the skills necessary for recognizing and addressing the common problems in the area of internal medicine in primary medical care. During seminars, the management of, e.g., arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, acute infections, chronic diseases of the respiratory tract, and metabolic disturbances in primary care are discussed. The practical sessions are conducted in a general practitioner’s office in groups of two students. They will participate in the everyday routine of a primary care physician’s work including: taking an interview, examining, diagnosing, and treating common illnesses. Students have the opportunity to perform some procedures, such as electrocardiography, blood glucose level testing, and giving intramuscular injections. During the course some particularly interesting clinical cases will be presented and discussed.
This course educates a physician of any specialty to be prepared for working with geneticists and with genetic outpatient clinics. During the course students should develop the understanding of the role of genetics in medicine. They should gain the basic knowledge of the structure and behavior of chromosomes and genes, the organization of the human genome, and gene mapping. They will learn about major types of genetic diseases and the mechanism of their inheritance; diagnostics – pedigree analysis, cyto-genetics, and molecular genetics; differentiation counseling; and about possible treatments. They are also taught about the molecular genetic bases of human physiological traits, e.g., sex determination, and diseases — including cancer.
This clinical rotation provides students with the opportunity to learn about the etiology, symptoms, and treatment of various infectious diseases in children and adults. Special attention is given to AIDS and viral hepatitis. Students take histories, perform physical examinations, and present data during rounds. They also review the current techniques of laboratory investigation and the use of antimicrobial agents.
This course presents the natural history of common neurological diseases and the diagnosis and management of these disorders. Students attend daily rounds with neurologists and participate in consultations. The learning objectives are to increase students’ ability to recognize neuropathology, to examine the patient correctly, and to use appropriate therapy. Lectures and seminars provide students with the indications for and the value of the EEG, CT, angiography, and NMR procedures.
This course focuses on lectures and seminars illustrated with extensive teaching and active case files. In addition to a routine x-ray examination, each student learns the principles of ultrasonography, computer tomography, angio- and cardiography, and nuclear medicine, including NMR imaging. Each student group assisted by a staff member covers the basic principles of interpreting chest, abdominal, and bone radiographs by the observation and discussion of current cases. Every student is required to observe special procedures and to attend all departmental teaching conferences.
This course summarizes the knowledge of malignant diseases obtained by students during specific clinical rotations and courses in pathology, pediatrics, internal medicine, surgery etc. Students participate in physical examinations and discuss metastasis and proliferation of the disease. They also have an opportunity to learn about the treatment and care of terminally ill patients.
This course introduces forensic aspects of medical practice. Lectures and seminars present problems of sero-hematology, drug and chemical intoxication, and parenthood and its identification. Students have the opportunity to participate in forensic autopsies and thus get some experience in the assessment of specific injuries — gunshot wounds, penetration injuries, intoxication, and others.
During this clinical rotation students learn the principles of symptomology and the treatment of most common diseases related to ears, nose, throat, larynx, and esophagus. Students participate in the evaluation and treatment of outpatient clinics and hospital patients in the wards. The lectures and seminars include the relevant basic scientific material related to specific pathologies such as malignant diseases, inflammatory processes, and trauma of the upper respiratory tract and esophagus.
The clinical parasitology course is the continuation of the basic parasitology course covered in the microbiology course. It constitutes an essential part of the infectious and parasitic diseases course. The tropical diseases course has been arranged in order to keep balance between theoretical knowledge and practical skills. It focuses on some selected syndromes and diseases that we recognize as most relevant to a future general practitioner.
Students are introduced to the many facets of orthopedics: identification of fractures, management of late complications, casting techniques, and reconstructive surgery. Students prepare case histories and perform physical examinations, go on rounds, follow their patients to the operating room and throughout the postoperative care and rehabilitation.
This course teaches students the understanding of the patient as a whole. It fosters the development of habits that will make clinical education a continuous, lifelong process, and it points out the ways of preventing degenerative diseases. The course focuses on issues relevant to all students irrespective of their ultimate career choice: the correspondence/relation/relationship of the basic sciences to the understanding of pathophysiology; diagnosis and management of patients with disability; day-to-day management of patients with partial or whole body impairments; a representative knowledge of the broad spectrum of rehabilitation problems; the technical skills required of the modern physician; the effective use of the scientific methods; the importance of sound ethical and moral principles; and the avoidance of pitfalls in the management of disabled patients.
Lectures, seminars, and clinical rotations acquaint students with the major ocular disorders in a manner that will interest primarily the candidates for general practice areas. This course covers the practical clinical aspects and the related mechanisms underlying various disorders such as: diseases of the retina and choroid, glaucoma, corneal trauma, cataracts etc. Emphasis is placed on obtaining experience in a careful examination of and first aid in post-traumatic cases.
Anesthesiology and Resuscitation
During this rotation students become familiar with the techniques and principles of intubation and the use of intravenous, arterial, central venous pressure, and of the Swan-Ganz catheters. Students also learn about: the problems occurring in postoperative and intensive care units, the pharmacology of the common anesthetic agents in the operating room, the principles of administering general and local anesthesia, and about the management of the anesthetized patient.
This clinical rotation helps students learn the symptomatology of most common skin diseases. During lectures and clinical presentations students learn the ways to recognize and differentiate various primary and secondary skin changes, and the ways to use specific external and internal treatments. Students are also introduced to the evaluation and treatment of venereal disease cases.
Introduction to Dentistry
This course presents the basic surgical issues of the oral and facial areas. In seminars students will learn about the symptoms of maxillofacial traumas including their diagnosis and treatment. Two seminars will focus on the diagnostic issues in benign and malignant tumors of the oral cavity and the maxillofacial area, as well as on the surgical treatment of tumors and metastatic lymph nodes. Also presented will be the possibility of reconstructions in some defects. The important part of the maxillofacial surgery is the surgical treatment of facial and orthognatic anomalies. Finally, the aspects of infections and inflammations in the orofacial region will be discussed. During the course some patient case presentations will illustrate the principles of diagnostics and treatment.
Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology
The main objective of this course is to present the specific features of the medical problems in the elderly, e.g., polipathology, politherapy, the nonspecific or unusual symptoms, and the geriatric giants. During the course students will learn how to approach and solve the medical problems present in elderly patients, within the framework of the biological, psychological, and social aspects of aging.